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Fingers crossed…. We try to be so careful of what we spray for just this reason, and have kept the round-up use to a minimum and only when it looks like we wont have rain for a few days We live on the east side of the Big Island so trade showers are common ever day for mins. Also thanks for the answer to the acidity questions, too, The tide pools are such a valuable resource that I hate to disturb them! Out goes the Round-up and its vinegar, baby! Thank you again! A question: Can I use the vinegar to kill sod that I want to turn into a veggie garden in a couple of months?

Will it stay in the soil such that it might hurt the vegetable plants I put in later? Kevin, lots of info! I think I am getting a bit confused? I just moved to a place that the weeds are choaking the grass… will the Vinegar kill the grass too??????? Thank you soooo much for all this valuable info!!! I have been putting up with invasive weeds and grasses for years rather than use poisons. Rise up to all who understand that natural alternatives exist. Well done Kevin for your site! Keep it up pleeease! Just wondering, I had heard that if you use vinegar, nothing else will grow where it has been used.

Is this true? I would love to use vinegar in my garden but want to plant perennials and annuals. I was also wondering if this works well with thistles. Hi just curious if you have any tips for week control in a veggie garden? Trying our first garden this year and want to be as natural as possible…. The smell of vinegar reminds me of Easter when I was a kid. Another great natural remedy I use is clove oil, which I buy at my local garden center.

And the smell is kinda nice for a few days. Will the vinegar work on kudzu? Love the idea of vinegar since I have small dogs that go outside. Thanks for the tips. Was excited to try this so I went and bought vinegar, but it s brown. Do you have to use white vinegar? What is the difference between the two? Thanks for this tip…I so very much plan to try this. Anyway, thanks for vinegar tip. That is stupendous! Why are we using something as toxic, and harmful to US as Roundup when plain distilled white vinegar works so much better?

Canadian Thistle is just too hardy to get rid of…UNTIL…I came across this recipe and use it on them…sunny day is best, and repeat if necessary a day later. It took a couple of years of consistent spraying, but now they are gone!!! They had spread throughout my landscaping and lawn. Get them before they get too big. Mix well. Make sure salt is dissolved and shake before each use. I use a large spray bottle and turn the spray to a thicker stream, aim at the inside middle part of the plant closest to the ground. You will notice the leaves dry up pretty quickly…a day or even earlier. Hi Kevin What a great article.

I was pointed to this by someone else and even though I have been working on weed information sharing for years now, I had never heard of vinegar — why? A check of the same database for synthetic herbicides gave me more than a hundred thousand entries. We need more research on alternatives and the comments coming in on your article are a great resource. Good to know about the Canadian thistles, j.

They are the bane of my yard, and no weed killer I have found so far even reduced their numbers. An EASY tip for controlling drift when spot spraying vinegar or anything else plus it re-uses! Then just take it with you when you walk around spraying weeds.

When you find one, pop the milk jug over the weed, put your spray nozzle in the top, and spray away.


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No drift, no overspray. Your wanted plants stay safe and you can really soak those weeds. I have found if I put on chemical resistant gloves, pour a little Roundup in a disposable glass and use a foam paint brush disposable then I can just paint the stuff on the plant I want to eradicate. Kevin That surprise me?

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I will try it and let few neighborhood know about it and hoping make weed go aways from thye fences. Our vinegar success proved to be limited. Vinegar will not get to the roots. Bleach, however, will kill the plant above and below the ground. I forget what I used for a lure, but a simple online search will tell you that. Either way, good luck!

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Do you have to worry about the acidity affecting the soil, or does it degrade quickly? Great tip! My choice for environmentally friendly lawn weed killing is a torch. They are easy to find at better gardening stores. Just zap them with the torch on a day when the ground is nice and moist for obvious reasons. I use this in the cracks of the driveway, much cheaper than roundup! I live in Texas and we have St. The grass runs in vines as opposed to individual sprouts. I was wondering if I used the vinegar as a spray along my fence line if it would kill my grass further out?

I was also woundering if I sprayed around the base of my trees, if the vinegar would hurt my trees at all? I have BIG pine, oak, and magnolia trees I would like to spray around. Thanks for all the useful information. Glad I found you on Facebook. Dawn dishsoap is strong because its made from petrochemicals! Meaning its not very ecofriendly. Red wine vinegar is said to work for blackberries, which are an invasive weed from hell in the Pacific Northwest we got plenty of berries…but its the kudzu of the NW. Sometimes thicker leaved weeds needs bruising to help vinegar work better..

The broken leaves should absorb the vinegar to good effect! I always pull the weeds out of our brick patio to preserve the mosses growing between the bricks. Thanks Kevin! I am anxious to try this. We do have three trees in this area. Is it going to harm them? Do you happen to know of a way to get rid of bindweed that has taken over our yard? The little white flowers look nice BUT that weed is ruining everything we have and taking it all over..

Any bit of info would help. I love this idea! But please be aware that cheap vinegar is probably made from genetically engineered corn, which is a product of the same company that gives us Roundup Monsanto. Apple cider vinegar, red wine vinegar, organic, GMO-free, or homemade would be options. Now to find a way to invest in a vinegar company so that I can get some of my money back. What did I do worng? Does vinegar really work?? Try again. Weeds need a home too. They may be invasive but they would not have survived this long if they did not fulfill some niche. Keep a small patch of weeds in your yard for genetic variety.

Will this work on what we call bamboo? If you trim it, even low to the ground, it grows out and up FAST. Can I use vinegar in a small commercial vineyard? We make sure the vine trunks have no suckers or any green when we spray Roundup under the vines? I would love to use this as an alternative. I sprayed vinegar about a week ago but we got alot of rain so I will spray again when weather permits. I have a large area I want to convert into a garden,it is covered in pasture grass. Do you think that spraying it heavely with vinagar would work and about how long should I wait to sheet mulch and get the beds ready?

I was just talking about vinegar and its efffectivity with a friend yesterday. Howewver, I do doubt the photographs were taken within 24 hours. If you look at the first photo the lettuce and Rosemary and other vegies are fairly young, uin the second they are rather bushy and the lettice twice the size. Can you explain that? Household vinegar may kill the top growth of some weeds but for those with deep root systems they will be back. Whether you are using household vinegar or horticultural vinegar you should wear eye proctection to prevent an accidental spraying into your eyes.

Can I just say re salt and soap, both will cause a build up in the soil if used regularly and so damage the soil ph. Soapy water can be handled by some plants and even cleaned up by some but vinegar.

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Any thoughts? Would hate to make one of them sick or worse….. I would like to kill everything in my backyard grass and all. Would this work? I would like to start over and lay all new seed. We have two small housedogs and i never like using weed killers because of them.. Kevin, I would love to try the vinegar idea. Was wondering if it is safe to use for weeds around my cut leaf Jap Maples and such? Does anyone have bedstraw?

Tried the vinegar? Please tell me it works. My recipe to kill weeds a hot sunny day, a gallon vinegar, add 1cup of salt and a squirt of dish soap the soap helps the emulsion stick add to your sprayer and spray covering all surfaces of the weed wait a week and reapply if needed rinse out sprayer. Question for Tiffany What amount of egg white and what amount of water do you use to ward off the critters you listed. This works great for my gravel area, after a few days when everything turned crispy, I used my propane roofing torch to burn the ugly dead stuff away.

Grass and weeds in driveway cracks were dead and dying by nightfall. Safe and efficient. Thanks lots.. Here in Davenport,Iowa. This is why it MUST have contact with the plant itself. It does NOT poison the soil. But you must be careful of drift as it does the same thing to ALL plants.

Does the vinegar work on rockachow gowing in the yard? I know the vinegar works on the gravel paths, but will it work on the other stuff? How long does it take for the pathway weeds to grow back? I am definitely going to try this — unfortunately I had already sprayed my veggie garden with round up — how long before I can plant in this garden now with the round up on it?

I am so glad someone pinned this! But vinegar, that is cheap and safe. Thanks so much! How about tubers like violets? They are all over our lawn. I feed a large community of wildlife … bird varieties and small animals times daily and am wondering what impact vinegar will have on their feeding area presently clear pea gravel AND pea gravel interspersed with grass and weed patches.

Will be trying the vinegar on paver bricks, etc. Vinegar to kill slugs? I have more than 30 plants and it is a constant battle and I am afraid that I am losing. My flower bed is invaded by colts foot. Last fall I hired help to remove all my perennials from my garden and remove all the weeds. We covered it in plastic for the winter. I removed the plastic this spring and found a few weeds, since late March the colts food has run rapid through my garden.

I have use round up twice and yesterday I have sprayed the area with Wipe out. Do you have any suggestions? Should I have the whole area dug up, lay cardboard and cover with new soil. Do you think this will remove the deadly colts foot. Thank you. Thank you so much for your great tips. I am new to the whole gardening biz. I live overseas Japan and so I rely on the internet to teach me how to garden. Anyhow, I have a plot all planned for my garden but it is overgrown with weeds. Do you think I could use vinegar on this plot to kill the weeds and then later plant my veggies there?

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How long before the soil would be safe do you think? Thanks again! I appreciate posts like this more than you know. I have used vinegar successfully for different weed infestations, however, I have an insidious, and extensive infestation of Myrtle Spurge, which is at the top of the noxious plant list here in Colorado on my property. I used Round-Up last year on this tenacious plant which continues generally virulent, despite some die-off, but I refuse to use that product any longer.

Does anyone know whether vinegar or variations of the use of vinegar are effective on this noxious invader? The addition of dish soap to any spray mixturewill help to reduce surface tension and to break though the waxy type coating some weeds have as a self defense mechanism. By the way, keep such spray away from your pollinators such as honey bees. If you inadvertently spray honey bees with soapy water, you have just killed them. Also be careful of how much vinegar you dump or spray on something.

If you get a big rain shortly afterwards, it will leach from the application area and kill vegetation you did not intend to harm. Using items for non listed or off label purposes always comes with risk. You will never find a real Master Gardener who promotes such practice. Just because it is natural, does not mean it is safe or good for you.

Hello there, I read this and started using vinegar on all weeds and it worked so well! Unfortunately, I think I added too much to the weeds near my butterfly bush. The leaves and stems are slowly turning brown. I am so mad at myself. Is there a way to reverse this? Maybe by diluted the soil with water? Kevin: Help! I repinned your suggestion of using vinegar on weeds then went to your site and read about it. I have read some really awful stories about Monsanto and the Canadian organic farmers and soybeans.

Monsanto is wiping out organic soybeans and ruining the fields that were deemed organic with their GMO genetically modified organism soybeans. But I have another question, what do you know about the product Simple Green? I sprayed it in my horsetrailer as a cleaner on the rubber mats to get rid of goat smell and goat blood after the vet surgically gelded the goat. Well after I put my horse in the trailer he became very agitated and was dancing every time I put him in there. Later I read that it can affect animals chemically, namely the scrotal areas.

Just wondering if you have had any experience with this product. I just became an associate master gardener and am volunteering with the help of the certified master gardeners in my town. Looking forward to reading more. I want to prepare my area for planting a tree and flower bed.

My landscaping is scheduled to start this evening, my neighbor is creating the edging and planing to put down black plastic over the grass, then fill it with top soil to begin our planting. If, so will it be safe to plant my flowers and tree the same day, or should I wait a day or two, so not to damage the roots or cause the plants to work harder to get established,. Any advice you can give me has a new gardener, I would greatly appreciate , as this is my first landscape of perennials. How long does this vinegar solution last? I use Groundclear on my driveway it is gravel and gets very weedy, and the Groundclear usually lasts about 1 year with only small touch ups.

Hi, For really tough weeds, try Pickling Vinegar. Hope this is helpful!! Does vinegar work on wild rice and will it hurt fish or frogs? I know someone doing this and I would like to get them to stop using roundup. I read down through about one fourth of the comments, but there are a lot of comments on here! So if this question was already asked, please forgive.

We have Horse Tail weeds that break off when you try to pull them, so they are out of control and always come back many fold. They are unrelenting. Any suggestions for these nasty invaders? Great post, as usual! I shared it on my farmers market blog. I have used vinegar with good results. Still trying to kill off poison ivy with it. Thanks so much. Great post as usual! I have used vinegar with good results and shared this post on my farmers market blog.

I am trying to kill poison ivy with vinegar, any suggestions? I tried the vinegar weed killer, and all it did was water the the weeds. Nothing died. Is there anything else added to it? I sprayed a gallon of white vinegar over a rocky area last night about 7pm, and it looked like no change had taken place this morning on my way to work???? Does NOT work on poison ivy on my mountain in Arkansas….. My favorite natural poison ivy treatment from research……get a goat! Although weed in themselves are not a problem. I have a forest garden and just leave the weeds alone, only pulling out the odd perennial from time to time.

Weeds are useful, as they bring up minerals from the ground and are of benefit to wildlife and other plants. Where have you been all my life? I look forward to visiting often. We have a small farm with Nigerian dwarf goats along with chickens rabbits, dogs, cats and a Llama I often graze them in the front pasture near the driveway so commercial weed killers are NOT an option anywhere on our property as these are dairy goats and WE drink the milk.

Not only did the vinegar work it worked FAST! Thank you Kevin!! Love your website you inspire me every day!! I have goutweed in my yard and am going to dig it up to hold it back. Will vinegar work on this to keep it at bay and in the other yards? Kevin, great article! Question: I have a small 9 pound dog. Is the vinegar harmful to her? Also, can I spray this in mulch beds? I have weeds in the beds, but also shrubs. Will it hurt the shrubs? Will vinegar kill my grass as I have some weeds in areas of my grass. Thanks for this great idea!

Hope I will receive your answer soon. Undiluted white vinegar and dishsoap in a spray bottle. My youngest and I went outside and had target practice! Hey Kevin! I have a strip running the length on my garage about a foot wide filled with weeds about 3 feet tall. I want to get rid of all of them.

Should I weed eat them down to a lower length and then use a vinegar spray or just spray them as is? Thanks for your recommendation! Better to newspaper mulch the area. Details here. And come next spring I should just be able to spray when the weeds are first coming up again?? If you lay the newspaper thickly enough, you may not have to spray at all next year. If you will wait till early spring when the weeds 1st start coming up before the grass then spray the yard with the vinegar it will kill the weeds and not the grass, grass is dormant at this time.

I am wondering if the vinegar will also kill the grass? Can you use the vinegar to kill the weeds in your lawn? Thanks Kevin, Tammy. It will completely ruin your soil! People used to salt enemies plots to keep anything from growing there at all!!! I have a problem right now that is really bugging me…the weeds are taking over my flower beds in my back yard I have trees and bushes planted in them.. Just reading the comments. I never realized it was apparently Bermuda Grass until I just now looked it up. Drought and the deer have killed it quite effectivly, two things we have had in abundance in the Texas hill country the last few years.

I spread rock salt on a large patch of crab grass in my gravel driveway and it worked like a charm. Will it take more than 1 application of vinegar to kill poison oak that is growing under my deck and coming up thru the deck to the side of the house?? I know the lady who invented Deadeye Vinegar a high percentage vinegar treatment for unwanted plants. She sold the business.

She told me for it to work, it has to be 70 degrees F or warmer, that you want to zap the plants when they are young. I vaguely remember something about it having to stay warm for some hours after zapping the plants with the vinegar. Think the trick about using a weedeater on woody plants would make a huge difference too. Also, planting castor bean plants will eliminate grubs which the moles eat.

Without a food source and smelly holes, the moles will leave. I tried vinegar last spring. Some stuff it killed, but it died slowly. And the stuff it did seem to kill came to life again after after a few weeks. So I am disappointed. Maybe I will try the salt and dawn dishwashing soap version. We had a very wet spring and early summer maybe if it had been drier and the weeds had less rain on them it would have worked better.

I only put it on though when we had 24 hours or longer without rain. I have a huge cottonwood tree in the yard and there are shoots that come up from the roots all in the grass. Would vinegar work on tree shoots??? This is a little off the subject, but we have some weeds growing on a steep hill. I saw your vinegar solution and plan on trying it. Dead weeds are ugly, so I was wondering if you had any suggestions as to going about planting some ivy to keep weeds from growing, as it is dangerous and hard to weed wack a steep area of yard.

Thanks for the tip!! The white vinegar killed the weeds within a day — it worked well here in South Africa with the beautiful sunshine that we have. We have a really bad sticker weed problem. But we also have a fur baby that needs to go potty and its been a nightmare!! To avoid damaging good plants, I put the vinegar in a closed plastic bag, then make a tiny hole at the low end,so it gets just the roots of the weed. Can you tell me the ratio of water to vinegar to use in a watering can or do you use just vinegar? My problem I have today is that I have a vacant lot next door. I have a downhill slope from there and I was wondering if I use vinegar around there will it kill my trees, grass and other plants that I want to keep if it was to rain?

Over the years I have learned that hardy weeds have some elements in them that the soil needs. Nature make those weeds to grow on that spot so the soil can gather those elements to stay healthy. Best way to do that is make a mixture of the hardy weeds and plain water. Stir daily. You wait till the liquid is a stinking brown soup. Sieve the plantrests out they can go to the composter Dilute the broth with water, shaje well.. Spray or pour the liquid over and around the hardy weed.

Soak it. You have to do this more times than once, but it surely wiil work. Use about 1 kg of weed to 10 litres of water. With a dillution of 1 kg will give litres spraying soution.

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Note: the liquid of 1 kind of weed works against that weed and not to other weeds! Will it stop growing back permanently or temporary? Any suggestion would be greatly appreciated. Vinegar is an excellent way to clean inside the house too. Spray a little on a sink, tiles, floor, stove-top, tub, taps, even toilet.

Sprinkle with a little baking soda and wipe. The baking soda foams up and gives a gentle abrasive which leaves a sparkling clean surface. I know this is all about gardens, but hey, we still need to clean up the soil we track in. I am so super excited to read this! I would want to kill weeds in the cracks in sidewalk and drive way.. I love white vinegar.. I use it and baking soda to deodorize my garbage disposal and sink, and in my dishwasher as a rinse for spots….

Does vinegar work on privet? Got any really good remedies for getting rid of Goathead plants? Thanks a million …. Waiting for summer to try this!! There is a organic product used by organic farmers called Eco-clear- vinegar and citris juice- that kills weeds in minutes. I have a tree in an area i want to use the vinegar to kill off the weeds which has taken over the st augustine grass. How far away should I spray the vinegar from the tree. The tree is very young planted a year ago. Is this safe to use around pets?

Also the solution mention with salt, is that safe to use around pets?

Thanks for all the tips! Love this idea of getting rid of my weeds. I have tried doing a no dig garden of top of a lawn full of weeds. In 2 years lawn! Can I use the vinegar solution to kill off existing weeds if I plan to put vegetables in the area at a later date? I used leftover salt from the winter months during the prior spring with great results! I have very alkaline water and soil….. Thanks for the interesting column! Craig Wedren Known for a wide array of musical adventures, as both a solo artist and front man for historic Washington D.

Skyler Day Georgia native Skyler Day wrote her first song at age 10 and started learning guitar at What most contributed to getting featured at Sundance:. Kris Bowers, Composer Monsters and Men. Element that most contributed to getting featured at Sundance:. Sam Bisbee, Composer The Sentence. Scored four films, numerous shorts, more than 20 commercials. Rudy Valdez, Director The Sentence. Jeff Beal, Composer Generation Wealth. Five-time Emmy-winner. Lauren Greenfield, Director Generation Wealth.

Mel Jones, Director Leimert Park. They have, however, but few wants, and are withoutany kind of ambition. Gooksey testifies- to their industry 6 : — " Employers of labour who have tried Waraus say that they are the best and most constant workers and require less- supervision than others". The Waraus are said to be of a gentle and engaging appearance, although, a sly or cunning disposition is sometimes found among the younger men l.

They have no hair on the face ; to have any is a sign of mixed blood. They have high cheek bones, oblique eyes, powerful arms, puny limbs, are somewhat bow-kneed, their feet and toes are spread out 2 in a manner most suitable for walking on the muddy shores and marshes which the inhabit. They are of middling stature and of very dark complexion 3.

The men 4 wear their hair hanging down over their foreheads and rather long behind. The women's 'buja ', or, as it is called by others 'guayuco', or, 'queyu' is attached to a similar cord, and is made sometimes of the inner bark of the. Kakarelli tree ' Lecythis ollaria ' beaten until it is comparatively soft and of the texture of thick rough cloth ; sometime sit is made of other fibre 6 ; of beads, etc.

The Waraus who mix with Spanish or English speaking people usually wear clothes. According to Dr. Plassard7, the Waraus are musicians. Schomburgk describes1 the Waraus as more addicted to polygamy than the other tribes of Guiana. He found also among them2 more than among1 other tribes the custom of bewailing the dead with great lamentations. Sometimes they bury their dead in the hut of the deceased which is then burnt down. Plassard says 3 they sometimes place the dead body on a kind of barbecue, or they roll it up in a hammock.

Historical notices. Waraus are found not only on the islands of the Orinoco Delta, and in the North-West District of British Guiana, but also up the Corentyne, the river forming the boundary between British and Dutch Guiana : and in Surinam. We have seen that in the eighteenth century they were also to be found up the Mahaica and Mahaicony Greeks in Demerara.

Bancroft locates them chiefly between Demerara and Surinam, his words are 5a : — " The Warrows are a nation of Indians inhabiting only the Sea-coast, chiefly between Demerary and Surinam, tho' some of them are found on both sides of the River Oronoque. They inhabit only the low, wet, marshy places, adjacent to the sea, and live chiefly on crabs and fish ". Hartsinck found them up the Berbice River and especially on the Ganje Greek 6.

He says, writing in : "In the Colony of Esse-. Rio de Berbice and the rivers and creeks belonging to it are, besides the Arowaks and Acquowayen,. Some subsist in fair numbers around the fort and about our plantations, prominent among these i. Their last. Unfortunately, it does not appear to be in existence now. Bonaparte3 places ' Warrons'on the Gorentyne, just below the mouth of the Kauri Creek, and on the Nickerie.

John Ogilvie who knows that river has told the writer he has found them as high up the river as the Wonotobo Cataract. Hancock has called attention to a close resemblance he had noticed between the Waraus, as described by Hilhouse, and the coast tribes of the Amazon 5. He says : — " They are the same in physiognomy and manners, and their respective languages also resemble each other in sound and form, differing in both from the dialects of all the other tribes.

According to Cooksey1 the origins and early history of the Waraumust be sought elsewhere than on the low, swampy shores he has frequented so long. His oldest legends are of high mountains and caves and rabbits all far removed from the Delta, but the fact that he has named the whole swamp and part of the hill country near Morawhanna in British Guiana as 'Wauno' the Crane , and, 'Ma-baruma' my grater shows that he has been a visitor for a considerable period, probably as long as the Spaniard.

Level refers2 to the Waraus as 'desprendidos de los montes', i. What exactly is meant by this statement is not, perhaps, easy to explain. Whatever their origin we find Waraus and Garibs engaged in war. Thus a Dutch Despatch, of Dec. It was destroyed by theCaribs, who burnt it. These woods are impenetrable by Europeans, and the natives areprotect-. Notwithstanding these difficulties, I have been able, by incessant work, and at some expense, to bring within the pale of civilized and Christian society 1.

Thus, helping each other, all are benefited, the Indian by the material reward he receives from the industry and religion learned from the Spaniard, and the Spaniard by the labour of the Indian's hands, which he rescues from idleness and applies to labour and agriculture. This planis both useful and suitable for settling the desert country round this capital,, and there are no wild Indians, except the Guaraunos, for more than leagues But means fail me for the complete reduction of the Guaraunos, It was probably these compulsory settlements which induced the Waraus to flee from the Oronico to the then Dutch territory as Gravesande records A letter of F.

Mariano da Cervera, dated Dolores, Dec. I had with me only two soldiers, and Guayanos from Caroni. It proved a short and successful 'entrada', as in few days I finished my fishing, and started back with souls, of whom all but 8 reached this place, they escaped us at San Antonio, although later on they were recaptured ".

An earlier writer remarks : — u because, in truth, government is more necessary than the gospel, for the savages respect more the gun than the Holy Ghost. According to Humboldt, the Guayquerias formerly belonged to the nation of the Guaraounoes, although their present name was unknown before the Spanish conquest 1. Old men of the tribe had told him that whilst then a Spanish speaking people, the language of their ancestors was a dialect of the Guaraouna.

Raleigh describes the Guayquerias under the name of 'Ouikeries' Wikiri. Hilhouse in says 3 : — "I know from tradition a Treaty has been made by the Colony with the Arrowacks, Warrows and Caribees. I have only understood the Treaty to be as retaining them as soldiers in the defence of the Colony, that they obey all calls of the Colony for service in consequence of which an allowance is made every three years which they consider as a retaining fee. I think it is the only tie — they look on it as subjecting them to serve when called solely as allies ; there is no clause I have heard of calling on them to submit to the laws in other respects.

The ruins or abandoned buildings, which can still be seen in them, are the monuments which proclaim at the same time the aptitude of the Indians for everything to which they were dedicated, and the vocation, ability, and constancy of those heroic missionaries who preached the Gospel among the primitive heathens, who came into their hands from the hands of nature. They gave them arts and occupations which provided them with those villages, convents, and churches, the relics of which still serve, in some places, to keep the remaining Indians.

He gives the population of Guarauno Missions on Oct. The warau language. This language has been used by others as well as by the Waraus.

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The Spaniards learnt it1 because they stood in need of the singular skill of the Waraus in their fisheries. Opinions have differed as to whether or not it has connections with other neighbouring languages or dialects. Atone time Lucien Adam said3 it belonged to no known family; afterwards he wrote4 of 'cette humble langue' as having no apparent relation with any other. Humboldt considered the languages of the Guaraounoes, Caribs, Cumanagotos, and Chaymas to belong to the same stock5.

Tavera-Acosta thinks2 it resembles the Carib, but with a certain admixture of Aimara. Schomburgk says 3 : — " Their language differs radically from that of the surrounding tribes, and is perfectly intelligible to the Arawaaks and Carib tribes. It is said to be more easily acquired than any other Indian language, as its words are comparatively few, and it is very distinctly pronounced 4.

Ghaffanjon says 5 the language is decidedly poor. Hancock describes it 6 as more simple, perhaps, than that of any other human beings. Plassard describes 7 the various families of the nation as speaking the same language with a few peculiarities of pronunciation. In transcribing the language Brett employs the vowels with the ordinary Italian or Spanish values 2. Brett says6 it is very distinctly pronounced, while Bancroft describes it7 as dissonant, the articulation as very indistinct, and says it is pronounced with a slow, disagreeable tone.

Tavera-Acosta 72,T-A. Lang's book, No. The 1st edition at the British Museum is dated It says the words on pp. Like that language, the language of the Indians of Guiana is essentially vocalic, that is, it abounds in vowel sounds, while every word terminates with a vowel.

Vocabulary of the warau language. One : P. Hesacha ; R. Hisaka; Ri. Heseka; B. Ishakka : Isaka ; I. Isbakka ; T-A. Shaca; Anon. Ichaka : Ichaka-sal; T. Isaca; Gh. Two : P. Maudmo; Cr. Manamo; H. Monamu; R. Manamo; Anon: Manamo-sa! Manamo; Ch. Three : P. Dianamo; H. Deeanamu; R. Dianamu; B. Dijanamo-sal; T. Dianamo; Ch. Four : P. Ourabocaya; To. Aravayaca ; 1. Rabacaia; Ch. Four 2 : T-A.

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Four 3 : H. Five : P. Mahabass; Ri. Mahabos; B. Mojoba; G. Mojabasi; T. Mobasi; Ch. Six: P. Moma- tana itchaca; H. Mohomatuna-hesecka; Ri. Mohomatuna heseka B. Momatani-sbakka; To. Montani-shaca ; G. Moj abat ana; T-A. Mojo- jabisapa-j isaka; T.

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Amatana isaca; Ch. Seven : P. Momatana manamo ; H. Mohomatuna-manam ; Ri. Mohomatuna monamu; B. Momatani-manam ; To. Montamanam; G. Mojabatana isaka; T-A. Mojo-jabisapa-manamo; T. Manamo isaca ; Ch. Eight : P. Mohoenti; H. Mohomatuna-decdnamu ; Ri. Mohomatuna dianamu; B. Momatani-dianam ; G. Mojabatana manamo ; T-A. Mojo- jabisapa-dijanamo; T. Dianamo isaca; Ch. Nine: P. Mohomatuna-nahatahanuh; Ri. Mohoma- tuna nahatakamu; B. Momalani-orabakaia; Anon. Mojabatana dija- namo; Mojabatana; T-A.

Mojo-jablsapa-manamo-manamo-jasi; T. Rabacai imca; Ch. Majo matana cracabaya;. Ten : P. Moreco; H. Mohomatuna mureikuit ; B. Mohoreko ; G. Mojorako] T. Mujoreco ; Gh. Eleven : P. Mojoreko-kuare-jisaca ; Ch. Twelve: P. Thirteen : P. Mojoreko-kuare-dijanamo ; Gh. Fourteen : P. Majo deco omu cracabaya. Fifteen: P. Sixteen V. Majo deco omu matant jisaca. Seventeen P. Majo deco omit matana manamo. Eighteen : P. Nineteen : P. Mojoreko- mojo-jabisapa-manamo-manamo jasi ; Ch. Majo deco omu matana cracabaya. Twenty : P.

Guarao; T-A. Mojoreko-ojireho; Gh. Twenty-one : P. Guarao jisaca daisama jisaca 'homme un d'un autre. Mojoreko-ojireko-j isaka. Twenty-nine : T-A. Mojo-reco ofireco mojo jabisapa manamo-manamo jasi. Thirty : Gh. Guaraojisaca daisama majo deco. Forty : P. Guarao manamo. Fifty : Gh. Guarao manamo daisamamajo deco. Sixty : Ch. Guarao dijanamo. Seventy : Gh. Guarao dijanamo daisama majo deco. Eighty : Ch. Guarao crabaya.

Ninety : Ch. Guarao crabaya daisama majo deco. One hundred : Gh. Guarao majo jabaci a majo deco omu deco. Dix mots. Seventy-seven : Ch. Guarao dijanamo daisamo majo deco omu matana. The Half: S-G. Half : T-A. Acari, mitad. The Human Family. Man, Husband : H. Neebooroo, man ; Ri. Niburu, mein Mann; B. Nebora,Neboro, man; To. Nibora, nombre; T-A. A-nebora, marido lit. Nebure sanuka, puer; T. Nibora, nombre : Ma-nibora, marido mio; 0. Neybo, Neybu, men, people, disciples; S-G.

Nibo, Nebo,. Neybo-rate, servant male Tida neybo-rate;. Neburata, investis unmarried man T. Neburato, joven. Man 3 : T-A. Daomato, nombre. Bachelor T. Sare, soltero. Bachelor 2 : T-A. Family, : O. Tribe, Family, People : B. Warau, people, neighbours; P. Uarao, familia, Ma-uarao, mi familia. Guarao, gente; S-G. Arao, Uarao, familia; gente : Arao, moradores; R4. A Gathering to assist in field-work : R4.

Grandfather : H. Nobo, grandfather; Ri. Nobo, Grossvater; T-A. Boy : H. Noboto, boy; Ri. Noboto, Knabe; 0. Children : B. Nobotomo, children, offspring-; T. Nobotomo, hijo Son. Girl: H. Annebacka, girl; G. Aribacamu, muchacha;S-G. Grandmother: H. Naatu, grandmother; Ri. Nathu, Grossmutter ;. Noti, abuela; G. Natu, avia. Grandchild: H. Naatooscnga, grandchild. Cousin : H. Hesenga, cousin Cf. Cousin 2 R. Woman, Female, Girl, Wife; H.

Teeda, woman; Ri. Tida, Frau; B. Tida, woman; P. Tida, fille; Cr. Tira, femme; Tir aine, ma femme; To. Ta-chira, Ta-tira, mujer; T. Ma- tida, miesposa; S-G. Atira,- Atida, esposa, mujer; Ch. Tida, fille; 0. Woman 2 : P. Ibama, femme; T. Woman 3 : Tatutuma, mujer. Old Woman : H. NaHveet, old woman; Ri. Natwitt, alter Frau. Woman of good presence : R. Sweetheart : T. Mabnto, novia. Sweetheart 2 : T. Maobonobia materibo, querida. Companion, Friend: T-A.

Marnila, amigo, companero. Prostitute S-G. Uataroko, prostituta. Son : B. Howka, son. Evidently la-uka, his son. Hi-uka, thy son. A-uka, hijo. Ma-uca, hijo kmy son', J. Mamauca, mi hijo; T. Maucua, hijo mio. Daughter : Cr. Ma-uca-tira, iille petite 'my daughter', J. Hi-uka-tida, thy daughter; T-A. Aukachira, hija. Infant : G. Jorosibo, infans ; T. Child, Boy : Cr. Child, Boy 2 : T-A. Ne-moco-moco , nino. Child 3 : Cr. Nephew : S-G. Giro sanuka, sobrino. Persons : B. Moanna, persons. Waba-moanna, dead persons See Brett's. Credo : — " T-atuhmyaro-tewaba-moannasenare-a ta-Utan, moanna- a arahatte senarea-te ".

Edamoo, old man; Ri. Idamo, lord, chief; Cr. Iramo, vieux; T-A. Ai-ramo, jefe, viejo; R. Aijhamo, Aidamo, jefe ; S-G. Iramo, Airamo, autoridad, viejo, gobierno el ; Ch. Cazique de otros; T. Aidemo, Fuerte, 5 Bolivar piece sic. Chief 2 : R4 p. Government: S-G. Daria, el gobierno. Father : Ri. Rima, father; P. Dima, papa; G. Dima, pater; T. Dima, padre ; 0. Dima, Far egen. Padre mi ; 0. Arima, Far andras. Padre de otros ; Coll p. Godfather : T. Mahuaito, padrino. Mother : Ri. Mama, Mutter; P. Dahne, Rahn, mother;. Brother : H.

Daheyey, brother; Ri. Dahei-ei, Bruder; T-A. Daje, her-. Brother 2 : P. Dacobo, hermano; Ch. Sister : H. Daakooey, sister; Ri. Dakuki, Schwester; T-A. Dacoi, her-. Sister 2 : T. Sister-in-law : S-G. Married Man : T. Cabatu, nombre casado. Uncle : H.